According to the recent intelligence update by the U.K. Defense Ministry, four out of five Russian generals "with direct operational command of elements of the invasion in February 2022" have already been dismissed, but their replacements have done little to improve Russia's battlefield performance.
"Eight months into the invasion, major elements of Russia’s military leadership are increasingly dysfunctional," the U.K. Defense Ministry wrote.
The ministry also said that, at a tactical level, Russia faces a "worsening shortage" of capable junior officers who could lead the recently mobilized reservists.
According to the ministry, such poor lower-level leadership is "likely worsening the (already) low morale and poor unit cohesion" in many parts of the Russian army.
"The lack of command continuity will likely be more disruptive than in a Western military because, under Russian doctrine, the development of plans sits largely with the commander personally, rather than as a collective effort across a broader staff," the ministry wrote.